Next.js using layouts to wrap sub-routes (or nested routes) is an effective way

In Next.js, using layouts to wrap sub-routes (or nested routes) is an effective way to apply consistent structure and style across various components of your application. Since Next.js does not natively support route-based layouts in the way that frameworks like Nuxt.js do, this functionality must be implemented manually. Here’s a straightforward way to achieve this using React components and Next.js’s file system routing.

Step 1: Define a Layout Component

A layout component is a React component that includes the common UI parts of your pages (e.g., header, footer, navbars). You can create multiple layouts for different parts of your app if needed.

Example Layout Component

Create a file named MainLayout.js in a components directory:

jsxCopy code

import React from 'react'; import Header from './Header'; import Footer from './Footer'; const MainLayout = ({ children }) => { return ( <div> <Header /> <main>{children}</main> <Footer /> </div> ); }; export default MainLayout;

This component includes a header and footer and a dynamic children section where sub-components will be rendered.

Step 2: Use the Layout in Page Components

In Next.js, every file under the pages directory (and subdirectories) corresponds to a route. To apply the layout, wrap the page’s content with the layout component.

Example Page Component Using MainLayout

Create a page profile.js in the pages directory:

jsxCopy code

import React from 'react'; import MainLayout from '../components/MainLayout'; const ProfilePage = () => { return ( <MainLayout> <h1>Profile Page</h1> <p>This is the profile page content.</p> </MainLayout> ); }; export default ProfilePage;

This setup uses the MainLayout for the profile page. You can apply the same layout to other pages or define new layouts for different sections of your application.

Step 3: Using Layouts for Nested Routes

If you have nested routes and want to use layouts, the approach is similar but organized differently. Suppose you have user settings pages under /user/settings with multiple sub-pages.

Organizing Nested Routes with a Specific Layout

  1. Create a Subdirectory for Nested Routes:Inside the pages directory, create a subdirectory for the main route:markdownCopy codepages/ ├── user/ └── settings/ ├── index.js ├── password.js ├── profile.js
  2. Apply Layout to Nested Routes:Each page inside the settings directory can use the MainLayout or another specific layout like SettingsLayout.jsxCopy code// pages/user/settings/profile.js import React from 'react'; import MainLayout from '../../../components/MainLayout'; const SettingsProfilePage = () => { return ( <MainLayout> <h1>Settings: Profile</h1> <p>Change your profile settings here.</p> </MainLayout> ); }; export default SettingsProfilePage;

Using a Global Layout with a Condition for Specific Pages

To apply a global layout or specific layouts based on routes conditionally:

  1. Create a _app.js File:This is where you can wrap your application in a global layout.jsxCopy code// pages/_app.js import React from 'react'; import MainLayout from '../components/MainLayout'; import App from 'next/app'; class MyApp extends App { render() { const { Component, pageProps } = this.props; return ( <MainLayout> <Component {...pageProps} /> </MainLayout> ); } } export default MyApp;
  2. Conditionally Change Layouts:If you need different layouts for different parts of your app, you can modify _app.js to include logic that selects a layout based on the pathname.jsxCopy code// pages/_app.js import React from 'react'; import MainLayout from '../components/MainLayout'; import AnotherLayout from '../components/AnotherLayout'; import App, { Container } from 'next/app'; import { useRouter } from 'next/router'; function MyApp({ Component, pageProps }) { const router = useRouter(); const getLayout = Component.getLayout || ((page) => <MainLayout>{page}</MainLayout>); return getLayout(<Component {...pageProps} />); } export default MyApp; In your page components:jsxCopy code// pages/someSpecialPage.js const SomeSpecialPage = () => <div>Special Content Here</div>; SomeSpecialPage.getLayout = function getLayout(page) { return ( <AnotherLayout> {page} </AnotherLayout> ); } export default SomeSpecialPage;

This setup offers flexibility, allowing you to specify which layout to use on a per-page basis while maintaining the ability to apply a default layout across the site. This is particularly useful for complex applications with varying UI requirements across different sections.

NodeJs, Postgres, ExpressJs, ReactJs – Fullstack training plan

Here’s a 12-week curriculum designed for a fresher programmer. This is a full-stack JavaScript training plan and it involves Node.js, Express.js, React.js, and PostgreSQL. We’ll focus on a week-by-week plan.

Week 1 & 2: JavaScript Basics

  • Day 1: Introduction to JavaScript: Syntax, variables, data types
  • Day 2: Control structures: if-else, switch, loops
  • Day 3: Functions: definition, parameters, return values, scope
  • Day 4: Objects: creating objects, properties, methods
  • Day 5: Arrays: creating arrays, array methods
  • Day 6: Practice: Solving simple problems using JavaScript
  • Day 7: Review and Q/A session

Week 3 & 4: Node.js and Express.js

  • Day 1: Introduction to Node.js: Setup, creating a server, NPM
  • Day 2: Basics of Express.js: Setup, Routing, Middleware
  • Day 3: Deep Dive into Express.js: Handling requests and responses
  • Day 4: Building a REST API with Node.js & Express.js
  • Day 5: Error Handling in Node.js and Express.js
  • Day 6: Practice: Building a simple application with Node.js and Express.js
  • Day 7: Review and Q/A session

Week 5 & 6: PostgreSQL

  • Day 1: Introduction to PostgreSQL: Setup, creating databases, tables
  • Day 2: SQL Queries: Insert, Select, Update, Delete
  • Day 3: Advanced SQL: Joins, Aggregations, Sub-queries
  • Day 4: Introduction to Sequelize: Setup, Model creation, CRUD operations
  • Day 5: Relationships in Sequelize: One-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many
  • Day 6: Practice: Designing and implementing a database for an application
  • Day 7: Review and Q/A session

Week 7 & 8: React.js Basics

  • Day 1: Introduction to React.js: Setup, JSX, Components
  • Day 2: State and Props in React.js
  • Day 3: Lifecycle Methods, Hooks in React.js
  • Day 4: Event Handling in React.js
  • Day 5: Routing in React.js with React Router
  • Day 6: Practice: Building a simple React.js application
  • Day 7: Review and Q/A session

Week 9 & 10: Advanced React.js

  • Day 1: Deep dive into Hooks (useState, useEffect)
  • Day 2: Context API and useReducer for state management
  • Day 3: Introduction to Redux (optional, based on learner’s pace)
  • Day 4: Connecting React.js with APIs
  • Day 5: Styling in React.js, CSS in JS, styled-components
  • Day 6: Practice: Extending the application built in Week 7 & 8
  • Day 7: Review and Q/A session

Week 11: Full Stack Application Development

  • Day 1: Planning the full-stack application
  • Day 2-5: Building the full-stack application
  • Day 6: Testing and Debugging
  • Day 7: Review, Q/A, and Next Steps

Week 12: Deployment and Beyond

  • Day 1: Introduction to unit testing with Jest (React, Node)
  • Day 2: Introduction to deployment (Heroku, Vercel, Netlify)
  • Day 3: Deploying the full-stack application
  • Day 4: Introduction to DevOps concepts (Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment)
  • Day 5: Introduction to Docker (optional, based on learner’s pace)
  • Day 6 & 7: Review, Wrap up, Discuss potential next steps and advanced topics

By following this lesson plan, the learner will get a strong foundation in full-stack JavaScript development with Node.js, Express.js, React.js, and PostgreSQL. Also, remember to include practical tasks and projects for each part. It’s important to practice and build actual applications to understand these concepts fully.

Apple iPhone 15: Price Hike and Exciting Upgrades Await

The anticipation for the upcoming Apple iPhone 15 is building, but recent reports suggest that buyers may have to brace themselves for a significant price increase. According to reliable Wall Street analyst Dan Ives, Apple is planning to raise the price of the iPhone 15 Pro and iPhone 15 Pro Max by up to $200 (approximately Rs 16,490). If this holds true in India as well, it could mean a substantial price hike for the 2023 iPhone models.

Ives, known for his accurate predictions in the past, had previously warned about the high prices of the iPhone 14 series. In a recent interview with CNBC, he reiterated his claim that Apple is likely to increase the price of the iPhone 15 Pro and Pro Max models. This move aligns with the expectations of several analysts and insiders who have also predicted price increases of up to $200 for the iPhone 15 lineup.

While the iPhone 15 series is expected to bring updates such as refreshed designs, faster processors, improved cameras, an ‘Action Button,’ and a shift to USB-C across the range, some industry observers believe that the overall improvements may be relatively modest. However, Ives suggests that the average selling price (ASP) for the next-gen iPhones will be higher, primarily driven by price hikes to the iPhone 15 Pro and Pro Max models rather than the standard variants.

Contrary to earlier reports of a potential $200 increase, a source suggests that a $100 price rise is more likely for the iPhone 15 Pro and Pro Max. Apple is still considering whether to adjust the cost of the iPhone 15 and iPhone 15 Plus models.

The impact of these price changes on the market remains to be seen. Apple enthusiasts and potential buyers will be closely watching how the iPhone 15 lineup unfolds and how the market responds to the price adjustments. As customers eagerly await the official launch, the iPhone 15 series promises a blend of exciting upgrades and potential affordability concerns.

In conclusion, while the iPhone 15 lineup may see a significant price increase, it is essential to consider the overall improvements and features that Apple brings to the table. The decision to raise prices is likely aimed at incorporating advanced technologies and enhancing user experiences. As we approach the official release, customers and tech enthusiasts will be eagerly analyzing the value proposition of the iPhone 15 series and its impact on the smartphone market.

The Gig Revolution: How IT Companies are Embracing Flexibility and Talent Diversity

In a rapidly evolving employment landscape, the IT industry is witnessing a significant shift in hiring trends. While the pace of permanent job placements is slowing down, the number of gig workers has surged by 40% in 2023 compared to the previous year, according to a research study conducted by CIEL HR Services, as reported by The Economic Times.

This research, based on data from over 100 IT services providers, reveals that six out of 10 companies are now actively hiring gig workers, marking a substantial increase from just two out of 10 companies last year. On the contrary, the growth of permanent positions in the industry has remained below 5% during the same period.

So, what is driving this surge in gig work within IT companies? The answer lies in the increased flexibility and adaptability it offers to organizations in an uncertain environment. By engaging gig workers, companies can hire professionals on a project-specific basis, tailoring their workforce to meet immediate needs. In fact, many IT firms are now adopting a blended workforce strategy, combining permanent and contractual employees with gig workers.

Leading IT giants such as Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys, and Tech Mahindra have been quick to recognize the potential of the gig work economy. They have either launched their own gig hiring platforms or enabled employees to take on external gig work with managerial approval. For instance, LTIMindtree has introduced GigSpace, a dedicated platform for gig workers, while Tech Mahindra utilizes Talex, an AI-powered talent marketplace, to identify gig workers internally. Additionally, they run external marketplaces like BeGig to connect with a broader talent pool.

Manoj Shikarkhane, Chief Human Resources Officer at LTIMindtree, highlights the advantages of leveraging gig work platforms within enterprises. He emphasizes that these platforms enable companies to tap into a vast talent pool, provide the right opportunities for individuals, and enhance their skills effectively.

The rise of gig work in the IT sector signifies a significant shift in employment dynamics, driven by several key factors:

  1. Flexibility: Gig work allows companies to scale their workforce based on project requirements and adapt swiftly to changing market conditions without making long-term commitments.
  2. Specialized Expertise: Gig workers bring specialized skills and expertise to the table, enabling companies to access a diverse talent pool and effectively address short-term projects or niche areas that require specific knowledge.
  3. Blended Workforce Strategies: By blending permanent employees with gig workers, companies optimize their resources, foster agility, and introduce fresh ideas and external insights to their projects.

Major IT players like Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys, and Tech Mahindra have embraced gig work as a means to tap into a broader talent ecosystem. This approach not only expands the available skill set but also provides additional earning potential and professional growth opportunities for gig workers.

However, it is essential to acknowledge that gig work also presents challenges, including job security, benefits, and consistent income streams. To maintain a sustainable and ethical approach to employment, companies must ensure fair treatment, transparent policies, and adequate support for gig workers.

As the IT industry continues to evolve, the rise of gig work offers both opportunities and challenges. By effectively managing and integrating gig workers into their workforce strategies, IT companies can harness the benefits of a flexible and dynamic talent ecosystem, paving the way for future growth and innovation.

The changing landscape of the IT industry necessitates a paradigm shift in employment models, with gig work emerging as a significant force. It is an exciting time for IT professionals as they navigate this evolving landscape, embracing the advantages of gig work while advocating for fair treatment and a supportive environment that fosters growth and development.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Startups: Metrics for Success

In the fast-paced world of startups, it’s crucial to monitor and evaluate the performance of your business. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) provide valuable insights into various aspects of your startup’s operations, financial health, customer acquisition, and overall growth. By tracking these metrics, entrepreneurs can make data-driven decisions and measure the success of their strategies. In this article, we will explore essential KPIs for startups and how they can help drive business growth and success.

  1. Gross Margin: Gross Margin is a fundamental financial indicator that reveals the profitability of your business. It is calculated by dividing Gross Profit (Revenue minus Cost of Goods Sold) by Revenue. A healthy Gross Margin indicates that your business is generating enough revenue to cover production costs and have a surplus for further investment and growth.
  2. Cash Burn: Cash Burn refers to the rate at which a startup consumes cash in its operations, excluding financing activities. Monitoring Cash Burn helps you understand your company’s financial runway, ensuring that you have sufficient funds to sustain operations and support growth initiatives.
  3. Churn: Churn measures the rate at which customers disengage or stop using your product or service. It is calculated by dividing Lost Revenue by the number of customers who are no longer active. By tracking churn, startups can identify reasons for customer attrition and take proactive measures to improve retention rates.
  4. EBITDA Margin: EBITDA Margin is a profitability metric that indicates how efficiently your business generates operating profits. It is calculated by dividing EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization) by Revenue. A high EBITDA Margin implies better cost management and operational efficiency.
  5. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC): CAC measures the cost of acquiring a new customer. It includes marketing and sales expenses divided by the number of customers acquired within a specific period. Monitoring CAC helps you optimize your marketing and sales strategies, ensuring that your acquisition costs align with the value generated by each customer.
  6. Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV): CLTV represents the total expected revenue generated from a customer over their entire relationship with your business. By calculating CLTV, startups can gauge the long-term profitability of their customer base and make informed decisions regarding marketing investments, customer retention efforts, and pricing strategies.
  7. EBITDA: EBITDA is a financial metric that reflects a company’s operating performance. It is calculated by adding Net Income, Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization. EBITDA provides a clearer picture of a startup’s profitability by excluding non-operating expenses.
  8. Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR): MRR represents the predictable and recurring revenue generated from customers subscribed to monthly plans. Tracking MRR helps startups assess their revenue stability and growth potential, providing insights into the effectiveness of their subscription-based business models.
  9. Net Dollar Retention: Net Dollar Retention measures the net revenue growth from existing customers, considering expansion and contraction. It is calculated by dividing Net Revenue by the opening Monthly Recurring Revenue (MRR). A high Net Dollar Retention indicates that your business is effectively expanding revenue from existing customers, leading to sustainable growth.
  10. Annual Recurring Revenue (ARR): ARR represents the predictable and recurring revenue generated from customers subscribed to annual plans. It provides a broader perspective on revenue streams and helps startups forecast revenue growth over longer periods.
  11. CAC Payback: CAC Payback measures the time it takes for a startup to recoup its Customer Acquisition Cost. It helps assess the efficiency of your sales and marketing investments, ensuring that the time it takes to recover the cost aligns with your financial objectives.
  12. Sales Attainment: Sales Attainment measures the percentage of quota achieved by the sales team. It provides insights into the team’s performance and their ability to meet or exceed sales targets. Monitoring Sales Attainment helps identify areas of improvement and set realistic goals for future sales cycles.
  13. Average Contract Value: Average Contract Value (ACV) represents the average revenue generated per contract in a business-to-business (B2B) context. It is calculated by dividing the total revenue by the number of contracts. Tracking ACV helps assess pricing strategies, evaluate customer segments, and forecast revenue growth.
  14. Expansion Revenue: Expansion Revenue measures the additional revenue generated from existing customers through upselling, cross-selling, or upgrades. It indicates the success of your customer retention and expansion efforts, as well as the effectiveness of your product or service in meeting customer needs.
  15. Contraction Revenue: Contraction Revenue represents the reduced revenue from existing customers due to downgrades, cancellations, or decreased usage. Monitoring Contraction Revenue helps identify customer dissatisfaction or changing needs, allowing you to take proactive measures to address their concerns and minimize revenue loss.
  16. Budget Attainment: Budget Attainment measures the percentage of your budget achieved within a specific period. It helps track financial performance and ensures that expenses are aligned with revenue and growth objectives. Monitoring Budget Attainment enables timely adjustments and cost management to stay on track with financial plans.
  17. Average Revenue per User (ARPU): Average Revenue per User (ARPU) calculates the average revenue generated per user or customer in a business-to-consumer (B2C) context. It is obtained by dividing the total revenue by the number of users. ARPU helps evaluate pricing models, assess customer segmentation, and identify opportunities for revenue optimization.
  18. Net Promoter Score (NPS): Net Promoter Score is a metric used to measure customer loyalty and satisfaction based on their likelihood to refer your product or service. It provides valuable insights into customer sentiment and helps identify areas for improvement in your offerings, customer support, or overall user experience.
  19. Runway: Runway refers to the number of months a startup can sustain its operations before running out of cash. It is calculated by dividing the available cash balance by the average monthly cash burn rate. Monitoring Runway is crucial for financial planning, securing additional funding if needed, and ensuring the long-term viability of the business.
  20. Revenue Run Rate: Revenue Run Rate estimates the annual revenue based on the current monthly revenue. It is obtained by multiplying the current monthly revenue by 12. Revenue Run Rate helps evaluate business growth and provides insights into future revenue projections.
  21. Gross Profit: Gross Profit represents the revenue minus the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS). It indicates the profitability of your core operations before considering other expenses such as operating expenses, taxes, or interest. Monitoring Gross Profit helps assess the efficiency of your cost structure and pricing strategy.
  22. Cash Out Date: Cash Out Date refers to the projected date when a startup is expected to run out of cash based on its cash burn rate and available funds. Monitoring the Cash Out Date is crucial for financial planning, ensuring adequate cash flow, and taking necessary measures to secure additional funding or optimize expenses.
  23. Net Income: Net Income represents the total revenue minus the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS), Operating Expenses, plus Other Income minus Other Expenses. It reflects the bottom-line profitability of the business after accounting for all expenses and additional income.
  24. Operating Expenses: Operating Expenses include all the expenses incurred by the company that are not directly related to the Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) or Other Expenses. It includes salaries, rent, utilities, marketing expenses, and other costs necessary for running the day-to-day operations.

Snapchat’s Groundbreaking Generative AI Feature: Revolutionizing User Experiences

Snapchat, the popular multimedia messaging app, has recently made headlines with the launch of its innovative generative AI feature. This new addition to the platform aims to enhance user experiences and provide creative opportunities for its paid subscribers. In this article, we will delve into the details of Snapchat’s generative AI feature and explore its potential impact on the app’s user base.

Snapchat’s Generative AI Feature:

Snapchat’s generative AI feature, known as “My AI Snaps,” is designed to generate personalized and interactive content for users. The feature utilizes advanced artificial intelligence algorithms to analyze user preferences, behaviors, and previous content interactions. This data is then used to create unique and engaging AI-generated Snaps tailored to each individual user.

Personalized AI Snaps:

With the My AI Snaps feature, Snapchat users can expect a highly personalized experience. The AI algorithms take into account factors such as the user’s location, interests, and previous Snaps to generate content that resonates with their preferences. This level of personalization ensures that users receive AI-generated Snaps that are relevant and engaging to them.

Interactive and Dynamic Content:

The generative AI feature enables Snapchat to produce dynamic and interactive content that goes beyond static images. Users can interact with the AI Snaps, which may include augmented reality elements, filters, animations, or mini-games. This interactivity adds a new layer of engagement and entertainment to the Snapchat experience, further differentiating it from other social media platforms.

Exclusive Access for Paid Subscribers:

Snapchat has introduced the generative AI feature as part of its paid subscription offering. This move allows the company to provide added value to its premium users while also exploring new revenue streams. By offering exclusive access to My AI Snaps, Snapchat aims to entice users to upgrade to paid subscriptions and enjoy the benefits of this innovative feature.

User Privacy and Data Security:

As with any AI-driven feature, user privacy and data security are of paramount importance. Snapchat has reassured users that it will adhere to strict privacy protocols and ensure that user data is handled responsibly. The AI algorithms work within the framework of Snapchat’s existing privacy policies, maintaining the confidentiality of user information while delivering personalized AI-generated content.

Potential Impact and Future Developments:

Snapchat’s introduction of the generative AI feature represents a significant step towards leveraging AI technologies to enhance user experiences. By providing personalized and interactive content, Snapchat aims to strengthen user engagement and retention, particularly among its paid subscriber base. Furthermore, this feature opens up possibilities for advertisers and content creators to explore new avenues for targeted marketing and creative campaigns.

Looking ahead, Snapchat is likely to continue investing in AI research and development to refine and expand its generative AI capabilities. We can expect further advancements in the AI Snaps feature, including additional customization options, improved accuracy in content generation, and enhanced interactivity.

Snapchat’s launch of the generative AI feature, My AI Snaps, showcases the company’s commitment to innovation and enhancing user experiences. By harnessing the power of AI algorithms, Snapchat provides its paid subscribers with personalized and interactive content, setting itself apart from competitors. As Snapchat continues to explore the potential of AI-driven features, it is poised to shape the future of social media engagement and pave the way for new possibilities in content creation and advertising.

COVID | Changing the way children study – Is e-learning impacting health of your kids?

We all might have heard Sitting is the new smoking!

From the numbers of Byju’s and seeing an increasing trend towards teaching kids coding at an early ages. All these products(Byjus, Vedantu, Easymarks) are trading the insecurity of parents and banking the health of the upcoming generation. We all know after getting into the ‘Sitting’ world and the ‘Smartphone’ world how all of our health have changed. Remember we all did it after 25 yrs of age, till then we were healthy. Think twice – should we push our kids to the same from age 10??

Average Sitting time of a 5th Std student.
Elearning from school – 6 hours
Byjus/Online Tutoring App – 1 hour
WhitehatJr – 1 hour
Youtube 1-2 hour
TV – 1 hour

11 Hours Sitting and Screen time starting before teenage, Its not that great!

Studies prove that sitting for a long time can cause Cardio diseases to Diabetes to weaker bone strength, stress, and anxiety . Our younger generation would be suffering

Have you thought about this??
Do you have a standing desk for your kid?
Do you make them do stretch exercises in between online classes?

Time to think! Comments from Parents highly appreciated!

A question to e-learning founders and product managers – why don’t you have some guided stretch exercises in between sessions?

A recommendation to teachers: Have seen only a few teachers taking online classes asking students to stand up or do some joined activity. Is that something good to follow?

xcrun: error: invalid active developer path (/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools), missing xcrun

xcrun: error: invalid active developer path (/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools), missing xcrun at: /Library/Developer/CommandLineTools/usr/bin/xcrun.

Most developers is experiencing the error after upgrading to Mac Os Sierra.
It affects all the command line developer tools including the git commands (git init, git push, git fetch ). Core reason for the same is when you update your Mac Os your commandline developer tools wont get automatically updated. It will be still in the old version which may not have support with other shipped tools with the new MacOsx version.

Simply . update your xcode command line tools

Open Terminal, and run the following:

xcode-select –install

Hope this helps. Happy Coding!!!